C# – First steps with C# and .NET – part 024 .

C# manages memory allocation by creating its types in one of these locations: Heap, Stack, and Register.
A heap is a place in the RAM where dynamic allocations happen.
The stack is a Last In First Out (LIFO) bit of memory which is relatively smaller than the heap.

Memory Allocation Memory allocation is StaticMemory allocation is Dynamic
How is it Stored?It is stored DirectlyIt is stored indirectly
Is Variable Resized?Variables can’t be ResizedVariables can be Resized
Access SpeedIts access is fastIts access is Slow
Visibility or AccessibilityIt can be visible/accessible only to the Owner ThreadIt can be visible/accessible to all the threads
StackOverflowException.NET Runtime throws exception “StackOverflowException” when stack space is exhausted

The register is used to store computational values of an arithmetic operation and temporary Value Types and is the smallest of all the locations.
These four main types of things we’ll be putting in the Stack and Heap: Value Types, Reference Types, Pointers, and Instructions.
The type declarations for Value Types are bool, byte, char, decimal, double, enum, float, int, long, sbyte, short, struct, uint, ulong, ushort.
The type declarations for Reference Types are: class, interface, delegate, object, string.
A Reference is often referred to as a pointer.
Boxing and unboxing is an important concept in C#.
Boxing is the process of converting a value type to the object type or any interface type implemented by this value type.
Let’s see a simple example:

The process of converting reference type into the value type is known as Unboxing.

Unboxing is the reverse of boxing and is the process of converting a reference type to a value type.
Let’s see another example:

Use List instead of ArrayList to avoid boxing because List‘s Add method actually takes an int parameter.
ArrayList is a class in C#, and so it is a reference type.
The .NET will perform the boxing process here to assign value type to reference type.
Boxing and unboxing degrade the performance.
Use generics to avoid boxing and unboxing using generic type.
The List<T> is the generic type.
This contains elements of the specified type and provides compile-time type checking and doesn’t perform boxing-unboxing because it is generic.

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